World heritage list of UNESCO
Iran, undoubtedly, is among the oldest countries in the world that of which shining as a beautiful star in the blue sky of civilization hiding in clouds of misunderstanding. Here, Parvaze Aram Abi try to introduce some of Iranian Heritage inscribed on UNESCO. We really hope that could be able to introduce part of Iranian heritage in order that have a role to develop people’s information about Iran and its outstanding and glorious history.
1 . Median-e Naqsh-e Jahan in Isfahan
Built by Shah Abbas I the great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for royal mosque, the mosque of Sheykh Lotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qeysarie and the 15th-century Timurid palace. They are an impressive testimony to the level of social and culture life in Persian during the Safavid era.
2 . Perspolis in Fars
Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Perspolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archeological Site.
3 . Chogha Zanbil
The ruins of the holy city of the Kigdom of Elam belongs to 1250 BC, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. The city reminded unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site.
4 . Takht-e- Soleyman
The archeological site of Takht-e Solyeman, in north-western Iran situating in a valley set in a Volcanic Mountain region which includes the principal Zoroastrian Sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Illkanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as temple of Sasanian period (6th and 7th countries) dedicated to Anahita – the goddess of ancient Persian who had been worshiped as a divinity of water and hence associated with fertility-.
The Site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.
5 . Bam and its cultural Landscape
Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of Iranian high Plateau.
The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th Centuries BC).
Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. The existence of life in the oasis was based on the underground irrigation canals, the Qanaats, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh).
6 . Pasargard
Pasargard was the first capital of Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens, and mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. The mausoleum of Cyrus II, Tall-e Takhat, a fortified terrace, and royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens are noteworthy of the Site. Pasargard was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.
7 . Soltaniyeh
The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302-12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Illkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the Province of Zanjan, Soltaniyeh is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum’s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U Pope have described the building as “anticipating the Taj Mahal.”
8 . Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System
Shushtar, Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Karun one of which, Garger canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Minab (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salasel Castle, the operation center of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills.
It bears witness to the known-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamins as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.
9 . Armenian Monastic Ensemble of Iran
The Armenian Monastic Ensemble of Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensemble of Armenian Christian faith: St. Thaddeus and St. Stapanos and the chapel of Dzordzor. These edifices- the oldest of which, St Thaddeus, dates back to the 7th century- are examples of outstanding universal value of the Armenian architectural and decorative traditions. They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, orthodox, and Persian. Situated on the south-eastern fringe of the main zone of the Armenian culture space, the monasteries constituted a major center for the dissemination of that culture in the region.
They are the latest regional remains of this culture that are still in a satisfactory state of integrity and authenticity.
Furthermore,as places of pilgrimage, the monastic ensembles are living witnesses of Armenian religious traditions through the centuries.
10 . Bisotun
Bisotun is located along ancient trade route linking the Iranian high Plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Illkanid periods. Bisotun located on a cliff at Mount Bihistun in Kermonshah Province, near the city of Kermanshah in west part of Iran.The principle monument of this archeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, the Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 512 B.C. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty, and treading on the chest of figure that lies on his back before him. According to legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the Median Magus and pretender to the throne whose assassination led to Darius’s rise to power. Below and around the base-releife, there are ca. 1200 lines of inscriptions telling the story of the battles Darius waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take apart the Empire founded Cyrus. The inscription is written in 3 languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions.
This is followed by Babylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of the inscription is particularly important, as it is here that Darius introduced for the first time of the old Persian version of his res gestae (things done). This is the only known monumental text of the Achaemenid to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darius I. it also bears witness to the interchange of influences in the development of monumental art ad writing in the region of the Persian Empire. There are also remains from the Median period (8th to 7th centuries B.C.) as well as from the Achaemenid (6th to 4th centuries B. C.) and post-Achaemenid periods edge of the Iranian high Plateau.