Persian Language is one of Indo-European Languages and among the oldest one in the world. In 1872, European linguistic in Berlin classified Persian Language (Farsi), Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit as the world’s classical languages. According to their definition, classical language referred to one, which has a long historical background, rich literature and little changes in the last millennium of its life.
After Arabic, Persian has to be known as a major language in the world of Islam. Today people who convert to Islam in Chinas and other Lands chose Persian (Farsi) as the second major language of Islamic scriptures. For Baha’i believers, Persian is the main language of their religious scriptures.
Persian language as a view point of numbers and diversity of proverbs is among the first tired world’s languages by which entering Arabic, French, Greek, Turkish, and English words becomes the richest world’s language in view point of words.
Persian language dictionaries like Dehkhoda (in 18 Volumes) and Moien (in 6 Volumes) known as the most complete, valuable and richest dictionaries in the world in which as a view of both terms of variety and degree of completeness.
Rout of Persian (Farsi) backs to Sassanid dynasty in which Pahlavi (the old version of today Persian language) was chosen as the official language. Some years later, one dialect of Pahlavi spread in Khorasan Province in the North-East of Iran that it has become closing to today Iranian language known as “Persian Dari”.
Persian language (Frasi) including as the 12th most applicable language in the virtual world and its ranking on the Internet content has been higher even Arabic or the other Middle East languages.
History of Persian Language
The progress of Persian divided to three periods: ancient, middle and new one. To be said that Persian was the language of Aryan People migrated to the southwest of Iran’s Plateau. By overcoming Achaemenid dynasty over the other rules, Persian spread as the official language in the vast Iranian regions. Like the other Indo-European languages, ancient Persian had very complicated grammar with different morphological states. Gradually, its grammar got easier due to learning this language by other generations.
In later of Achaemenid era, ancient Persian had made to the first form of Pahlavi due to continuous process of simplification. In third century after death of Christ, the first scriptures of Sassanid kings divided into three groups: Parthian, Pahlavi and Greek, although after AD forth century all scriptures had been in a Pahlavi form.
Despite the fact that the official language was Pahlavi in all Iranian regions in AD 7th century but people’s language of north parts was Parthian.
Ancient handwriting was cuneiform; however, it seems this handwriting to be used only for scriptures and not to be used by people.
After Arab invasion, except Pahlavi language, other Iranian languages & dialects had been abolished. Arabs rules preferred to contact with Iranian by Pahlavi language. The main reason of prevalence of Persian in the middle Asia was Muslim soldiers’ attacks and their efforts to contact with people of those lands by this language.
Middle Persian language (Pahlavi language)
Based on linguistics’ classification, the language that was used in Iranian lands between AD 3th –7th centuries known as Pahlavi. Its grammar was easier (than ancient one) but was still so much complicated compared to Islamic era. Pahlavi language was an old version of Persian that seems direct intermediary between the ancient Persian and modern one.
Pahlavi language as viewpoint of both lexical and grammatical terms is so similar to modern Persian. As the matter of fact, evaluation happened from ancient Persian to Pahlavi was so much considerable than the evaluation from Pahlavi to Modern one.
New Persian language
With overcoming east lands by Islam soldiers, Persian language sounds more applicable to contact with people in those lands. Therefore, Persian was replaced the other local languages, and gradually turned to the literature language in those communities.
Using Arabic alphabet for Persian started from Khorasan district while in Susa and western parts people was still using Pahlavi Script due to large group of Zoroastrians and its Priests. After time went on, gradually Persian dialect spread from south & west to north & east so that this new dialect and its script spread in vast regions.
Zoroastrian who preferred to continue their writings by Pahlavi Scripts addressed the new Persian as a “Dari Persian”, even though by time went on and when the Pahlavi script & dialect was practically abolished, “Dari Persian” called only “Persian.”
The first poems composed was in Samanian Dynasty by the honorable pioneer poets like Balkhi, Roodaki, AbooShakoor, Daghighi, Ferdoosi in which inspired a lots of poets in Iran, India, Middle Asia, and Turkish-speaking countries in Minor Asia.
Great Fredoosi by composing Shahnameh played a significant role in reviving a lot of missing Persian words. Undoubtedly, Persian language owes its identity to Ferdoosi’s spontaneous efforts during 30 years.
In Samanian Dynasty and in their regions, the official language instead of Arabic was Persia. In Goorganian Dynasty, Persian language spread in India in a way that not only ordinary people but also royals preferred to speak by Persian. This approach caused the migration a lot of Iranian artists, writers and poets to Indea.
Modern Persian language
By establishing Iranian Academy in 1934 and getting familiar with style of western writings a new modern of Persian life has been appeared in which it has practical orientation (tendency) toward Persian purification from complicated Arabic expresses.
Unfortunately, due to British Exploitation in India and Russia Exploitation in Middle Asia lands, Persian language started to be waned in three great constitute of Iranian civilization in the regions of Samarkand, Bukhara, Merv. Nevertheless, majority of people in Uzbekistan, east of Tashkand, Qarkaneh Valley, Bokhara & Samarkand, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan still speak Farsi (Persian). However, Persian continues its way inside of Iran with full of power in way that it has the first language of majority of Iranian people. To be said that around 110 million people speak Farsi in the world in toto.